PDA

View Full Version : Ling-Zhi -- The Mushroom of Immortality



LostGnosticOccultum
04-22-2013, 01:26 AM
This thread is something I'm spinning off of the thread Sacred Mushrooms & Truffles (http://forum.alchemyforums.com/showthread.php?1911-Sacred-Mushrooms-Truffles) thread because I believe it is important enough to have its own thread.

I have recently been doing some research into the "Mushroom(s) of Life," or “Mushroom(s) of Immortality,” as Zhi has been dubbed.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Jreishi2.jpg/220px-Jreishi2.jpg
Ling-Zhi/Chizhi/Red-Zhi

The use of Zhi (Ling-Zhi) has been recorded in ancient Chinese pharmacopeias and alchemical manuscripts for over 4000 years. Traditionally there are 6 types of Zhi; each of which was identified by its color. They were classified as, Xiancao, “Immortality Herbs,” by Li Shizhen. These 6 colors are Green, Red, Yellow, White, Black, and Purple. Ling-Zhi is the Chi-Zhi (Life-Zhi), which happens to be the Red-Zhi.


possesses anti-tumor, immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic activities, supported by studies on polysaccharides, terpenes, and other bioactive compounds isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia of this fungus (reviewed by R. R. Paterson and Lindequist et al.) It has also been found to inhibit platelet aggregation, and to lower blood pressure (via inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme), cholesterol, and blood sugar.

Laboratory studies have shown anti-neoplastic effects of fungal extracts or isolated compounds against some types of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer. In an animal model, Ganoderma has been reported to prevent cancer metastasis, with potency comparable to Lentinan from Shiitake mushrooms.

The mechanisms by which Ganoderma lucidum may affect cancer are unknown and they may target different stages of cancer development: inhibition of angiogenesis (formation of new, tumor-induced blood vessels, created to supply nutrients to the tumor) mediated by cytokines, cytoxicity, inhibiting migration of the cancer cells and metastasis, and inducing and enhancing apoptosis of tumor cells. Nevertheless, Ganoderma lucidum extracts are already used in commercial pharmaceuticals such as MC-S for suppressing cancer cell proliferation and migration.

Additional studies indicate that ganoderic acid has some protective effects against liver injury by viruses and other toxic agents in mice, suggesting a potential benefit of this compound in the treatment of liver diseases in humans, and Ganoderma-derived sterols inhibit lanosterol 14α-demethylase activity in the biosynthesis of cholesterol . Ganoderma lucidum compounds inhibit 5-alpha reductase activity in the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone.

Besides effects on mammalian physiology, Ganoderma lucidum is reported to have anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities. Ganoderma lucidum is reported to exhibit direct anti-viral with the following viruses; HSV-1, HSV-2, influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis. Ganoderma lucidum mushrooms are reported to exhibit direct anti-microbial properties with the following organisms; Aspergillus niger, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, and Escherichia coli. Other benefits were studied such as the effect of lowering hypertension, cholesterol, and anti-inflammatory benefits through the ganoderic acid properties.

Its genome, with about 12,600 genes on 13 chromosomes, was sequenced in 2012.

I will be attempting to acquire some of this in the near future to work with in complement to my Saffron (http://forum.alchemyforums.com/showthread.php?3550-Saffron-Extract) work.


GOD Bless, LGO

Kiorionis
04-22-2013, 01:57 AM
I will be attempting to acquire some of this in the near future to work with in complement to my Saffron (http://forum.alchemyforums.com/showthread.php?3550-Saffron-Extract) work.

Mushrooms and plants! now there's a relationship I enjoy :)
any particular reason why -- out of the huge kingdom of mushies -- you chose Ganoderma lucidum?



Taxonomy and naming

Names for the lingzhi fungus have a two thousand year history. The Chinese term lingzhi 靈芝 was first recorded in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 CE). Petter Adolf Karsten named the genus Ganoderma in 1881.[2]

Botanical names

The lingzhi's botanical names have Greek and Latin roots. The generic name Ganoderma derives from the Greek ganos γανος "brightness; sheen", hence "shining" and derma δερμα "skin".[3] The specific epithet Lucidum is Latin for "shining" and tsugae for "hemlock" (from Japanese tsuga 栂).

There are multiple species of Lingzhi, scientifically known to be within the Ganoderma lucidum species complex and mycologists are still researching the differences among species within this complex.[4]

LostGnosticOccultum
04-22-2013, 02:25 AM
Just a little research I've done on the Biochemistry of these mushies lol :cool:


Ganoderma lucidum produces a group of triterpenes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triterpenes), called ganoderic acids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganoderic_acid), which have a molecular structure similar to steroid hormones. It also contains other compounds often found in fungal materials, including polysaccharides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysaccharide) (such as beta-glucan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-glucan)), coumarin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coumarin), mannitol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannitol), and alkaloids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkaloids).

Ganoderic Acids

Ganoderic acids are a class of closely related triterpenoids (derivatives from lanosterol) found in Ganoderma mushrooms. For thousands of years, the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma fungi have been used in traditional medicines in East Asia. Consequently, there have been efforts to identify the chemical constituents that may be responsible for the putative pharmacological effects. There are dozens of ganoderic acids that have been isolated and characterized, of which ganoderic acid A and ganoderic acid B are the most well characterized. Some ganoderic acids have been found to possess biological activities including hepatoprotection, anti-tumor effects, and 5-alpha reductase inhibition.


β-Glucans

β-Glucans are known as "biological response modifiers" because of their ability to activate the immune system. Immunologists have discovered that receptors on the surface of innate immune cells called dectin-1 and complement receptor 3 (CR3 or CD11b/CD18) are responsible for binding to β-glucans, allowing the immune cells to recognize them as "non-self" Blood Cholesterol

Several health claims requests were submitted to the EFSA NDA Panel (Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), related to the role of β-glucans in "maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations and maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight". In July 2009, the Scientific Committee issued the following statements (http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1254.htm):

**On the basis of the data available, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of beta-glucans and the reduction of blood cholesterol concentrations.
**The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: "Regular consumption of beta-glucans contributes to maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations". In order to bear the claim, foods should provide at least 3 g/d of beta-glucans from oats, oat bran, barley, barley bran, or from mixtures of non-processed or minimally processed beta-glucans in one or more servings. The target population is adults with normal or mildly elevated blood cholesterol concentrations.
**On the basis of the data available the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of beta-glucans and the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight.
Tumoricidal Properties
The tumoricidal properties of β-glucans have been studied in several in vitro and in vivo animal models. In a mouse model study, β-1,3 glucan in conjunction with interferon gamma inhibited tumors and liver metastasis. In some studies, β-1,3 glucans enhanced the effects of chemotherapy. In a mouse carcinoma model, β-1,3 glucans did not reduce tumor incidence, but were associated with reduced mortality in combination with cyclophosphamide. In human patients with advanced gastric or colorectal cancer, the administration of β-1,3 glucans derived from shiitake mushrooms, in conjunction with chemotherapy, resulted in prolonged survival times.
Coumarin

Coumarins have shown some evidence of many biological activities, although they are approved for few medical uses as pharmaceuticals. The activity reported for coumarin and coumarins includes anti-HIV, anti-tumor, anti-hypertension, anti-arrhythmia, anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoporosis, antiseptic, and analgesic (pain relief). It is also used in the treatment of asthma. Coumarin has been used in the treatment of lymphedema.Can cure HIV/AIDS?!

Mannitol

Mannitol can also be used as a facilitating agent for the transportation of pharmaceuticals directly into the brain. The arteries of the blood–brain barrier are much more selective than normal arteries. Normally, molecules can diffuse into tissues through gaps between the endothelial cells of the blood vessels For all you how make/use psychoactive/psychedelics and anyone who uses brain enhancement elixirs/tinctures/extracts/etc. use a little of this with your concoctions for better and faster absorptions.

GOD Bless, LGO

LostGnosticOccultum
04-22-2013, 02:27 AM
Mushrooms and plants! now there's a relationship I enjoy :)
any particular reason why -- out of the huge kingdom of mushies -- you chose Ganoderma lucidum?

As you can see from my above post :) enjoy lol

GOD Bless, LGO

Kiorionis
04-22-2013, 02:31 AM
I figured it was something along those lines. Interesting stuff!

My favorite thing about fungi in general:


A typical single spore germinates into a homokaryotic mycelium, which cannot reproduce sexually; when two compatible homokaryotic mycelia join and form a dikaryotic mycelium, that mycelium may form fruiting bodies such as mushrooms. A mycelium may be minute, forming a colony that is too small to see, or it may be extensive.

It is through the mycelium that a fungus absorbs nutrients from its environment. It does this in a two-stage process. First, the hyphae secrete enzymes onto or into the food source, which break down biological polymers into smaller units such as monomers. These monomers are then absorbed into the mycelium by facilitated diffusion and active transport.

Mycelia are vital in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for their role in the decomposition of plant material. They contribute to the organic fraction of soil, and their growth releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. The mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption of most plants and confers resistance to some plant pathogens. Mycelia are an important food source for many soil invertebrates.

Sclerotia are compact or hard masses of mycelia.